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Hamutoko, J.T., Wanke, H. and Voigt, H.J. 2016. Estimation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution based on DRASTIC in the Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin, Namibia. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 93: 46-54


Description:

Estimation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution based on DRASTIC in the Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin, Namibia.

Summary / Notes:

Surface water is a scarce resource in Namibia with about sixty percent of Namibia's population dependent on groundwater for drinking purposes. With increasing population, the country faces water challenges and thus groundwater resources need to be managed properly. One important aspect of Integrated Water Resources Management is the protection of water resources, including protection of groundwater from contamination and over-exploitation. This study explores vulnerability mapping as a basic tool for protecting groundwater resources from pollution. It estimates groundwater vulnerability to pollution in the upper Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai-Etosha in Northern Namibia using the DRASTIC index. The DRASTIC index uses GIS to estimate groundwater vulnerability by overlaying different spatially referenced hydrogeological parameters that affect groundwater contamination. The study assesses the discontinuous perched aquifer (KDP) and the Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1 (KOH-1). For perched aquifers, point data was regionalized by a hydrotope approach whereas for KOH-1 aquifer, inverse distance weighting was used. The hydrotope approach categorized different parts of the hydrogeological system with similar properties into five hydrotopes. The result suggests that the discontinuous perched aquifers are more vulnerable than Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1. This implies that vulnerability increases with decreasing depth to water table because contaminants have short travel time to reach the aquifer when they are introduced on land surface. The nitrate concentration ranges between 2 and 288 mg/l in perched aquifers while in Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1, it ranges between 1 and 133 mg/l. It was observed that perched aquifers have high nitrate concentrations than Ohangwena 1 aquifer, which correlates well with the vulnerability results. Keywords: DRASTIC index, IWRM, Groundwater vulnerability;, Discontinuous perched aquifer (KDP), Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1 (KOH-1).

Year: 2016

Type: Journal Article

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706516000036


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