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Kreike, E. The Ovambo Paradox: Challenging Paradigms of Environmental Change in Africa


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The Ovambo Paradox: Challenging Paradigms of Environmental Change in Africa.

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As inhabitants of the Ovambo floodplain in northern Namibia and southern Angola settled wilderness (ofuka) areas in and east of the floodplain between the 1910s and 1960s, they deforested land in order to construct farms, fields, and villages. As they managed their new environments, however, they propagated pre-existing and new woody vegetation, resulting in reforestation.1 Descriptions of the late 1800s environment of the region are strikingly similar to those of the late 1900s: both depict settlements characterized by neighboring farms, with towering fruit trees and dense woody vegetation on the edges of the farms and between the villages. Yet, dramatic environmental changes occurred between the late 1800s and 1900s: many areas were heavily deforested and reforested, revealing multi-trajectory and contradictory environmental changes. Ambiguity in the record of environmental change is not rare; to the contrary. Ambiguity may be attributed to different valuations of what constitutes degradation, and what may be considered to be improvement. Moreover, interpretations of the significance of the process of environmental change and its outcome may differ.

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